Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.199, 282-289, 2012
Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust
Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N-TOT) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N-TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N-TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N-TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of similar to 10(4) cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.