International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.35, No.3, 1219-1226, 2010
High-density automotive hydrogen storage with cryogenic capable pressure vessels
LLNL is developing cryogenic capable pressure vessels with thermal endurance 5-10 times greater than conventional liquid hydrogen (LH(2)) tanks that can eliminate evaporative losses in routine usage of (L)H(2) automobiles. in a joint effort BMW is working on a proof of concept for a first automotive cryo-compressed hydrogen storage system that can fulfill automotive requirements on system performance, life cycle, safety and cost. Cryogenic pressure vessels can be fueled with ambient temperature compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH(2)), LH(2) or cryogenic hydrogen at elevated supercritical pressure (cryo-compressed hydrogen, CcH(2)). When filled with LH(2) or CcH(2), these vessels contain 2-3 times more fuel than conventional ambient temperature compressed H(2) vessels. LLNL has demonstrated fueling with LH(2) onboard two vehicles. The generation 2 vessel, installed onboard an H(2)-powered Toyota Prius and fueled with LH(2) demonstrated the longest unrefueled driving distance and the longest cryogenic H(2) hold time without evaporative losses. A third generation vessel will be installed, reducing weight and volume by minimizing insulation thickness while still providing acceptable thermal endurance. Based on its long experience with cryogenic hydrogen storage, BMW has developed its cryo-compressed hydrogen storage concept, which is now undergoing a thorough system and component validation to prove compliance with automotive requirements before it can be demonstrated in a BMW test vehicle. (C) 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.