Energy, Vol.65, 303-318, 2014
Macro economic impact, reduction of fee deficit and profitability of a sustainable transport model based on electric mobility. Case study: City of Leon (Spain)
The Spanish economy faces two key issues. The first of these is the significant reliance on non-renewable energy, which reached 76.4% and was 22 points over the European Union average. Secondly, the threat that the fee deficit poses to the sustainability of the National Grid. This fact is forcing the Spanish Government to implement measures focused on tax increases. However, these decisions have done little to contain the situation. This paper proposes the use of sustainable transport models based on electric mobility: smart grids, buses, taxis and electric vehicles, in the city of Leon, Spain (135,059 inhabitants) as an important means for controlling and reducing the fee deficit. Through exhaustive analysis of EV (electric vehicle) market penetration against current Government forecasts, a rigorous profitability study has been conducted for the period 2020-2030 (when smart grids will be ready). By introducing policy modifications, the Net Actual Value internal rate of return and payback figures justify its implementation. Thus, the fee deficit of Leon could be reduced by up to 43%. Finally, an analysis of macroeconomic impacts, such as competitive improvements in the economy, and environmental impact is conducted. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.