Energy, Vol.55, 319-329, 2013
A novel least squares support vector machine ensemble model for NOx emission prediction of a coal-fired boiler
Real operation data of power plants are inclined to be concentrated in some local areas because of the operators' habits and control system design. In this paper, a novel least squares support vector machine (LSSVM)-based ensemble learning paradigm is proposed to predict NO emission of a coal-fired boiler using real operation data. In view of the plant data characteristics, a soft fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm is proposed to decompose the original data and guarantee the diversity of individual learners. Subsequently the base LSSVM is trained in each individual subset to solve the subtask. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) is applied as the combination strategy to eliminate the collinear and redundant information of the base learners. Considering that the fuzzy membership also has an effect on the ensemble output, the membership degree is added as one of the variables of the combiner. The single LSSVM and other ensemble models using different decomposition and combination strategies are also established to make a comparison. The result shows that the new soft FCM-LSSVM-PLS ensemble method can predict NOx emission accurately. Besides, because of the divide and conquer frame, the total time consumed in the searching the parameters and training also decreases evidently. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:NOx emission;Coal-fired boiler;Ensemble learning;Least squares support vector machine;Partial least squares;Soft fuzzy c-means