Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.446, No.3, 692-696, 2014
Diverse functions of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol in the brain
24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) which is enzymatically produced in the brain plays important physiological roles in maintaining brain cholesterol homeostasis. We found that 24S-OHC at sub-lethal concentrations down-regulated amyloid precursor protein (APP) trafficking via enhancement of the complex formation of APP with up-regulated glucose-regulated protein 78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. In accordance with this mechanism, 24S-OHC suppressed amyloid-beta production in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, 24S-OHC at sub-lethal concentrations induced adaptive responses via transcriptional activation of the liver X receptor signaling pathway, thereby protecting neuronal cells against the forthcoming oxidative stress induced by 7-ketocholesterol. On the other hand, we found that high concentrations of 24S-OHC induced apoptosis in T-lymphoma Jurkat cells which endogenously expressed caspase-8, and induced necroptosis - a form of programmed necrosis - in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells which expressed no caspase-8. In this Article, we show the diverse functions of 24S-OHC and consider the possible importance of controlling 24S-OHC levels in the brain for preventing neurodegenerative diseases. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.