Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.98, No.14, 6409-6418, 2014
Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium
Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 mu mol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 mu mol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R-2 > 0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R-2 < 0.38). Significantly, concentration-dependent molar ratios of Pb/GSH ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 were observed, while molar ratios of Cd/GSH were at the scope of 1.53-3.32, confirming the dominant role of GSH in Cd chelation. The study also demonstrated that P. chrysosporium showed considerable hypertolerance to Pb ions, accompanied with demand-driven stimulation in GSH synthesis and unconspicuous generation of reactive oxygen stress. GSH plummeted dramatically response to Cd exposure, due to the strong affinity of GSH to Cd and the involvement of GSH in Cd detoxification mechanism mainly as Cd chelators. Investigations into GSH metabolism and its role in ameliorating metal toxicity can offer important information on the application of the microorganism for wastewater treatment.