Nano Today, Vol.2, No.6, 30-37, 2007
Nanotube electrodes and biosensors
This article reviews the state of the art in carbon nanotube electrode and biosensor research. Carbon nanotubes have unique mechanical, electrical, and geometrical properties that are ideal for developing different types of nanoscale electrodes and biosensors. Carbon nanotube synthesis and subsequent functionalization strategies to immobilize special biomolecules are discussed first. Then different types of carbon nanotube biosensors and electroanalytical methods are reviewed particularly considering their capabilities for low detection limits, point-of-care applications, and label-free use. Detection strategies for proteins and nucleic acids, as well as mammalian and bacterial cells are also outlined. We conclude with some speculations and predictions on future exciting and challenging directions for nanotube biosensor research and applications.