Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol.99, No.12, 9984-9993, 1993
Nonlinear-Optical Properties of Novel Thiophene Derivatives - Experimental and Ab-Initio Time-Dependent Coupled Perturbed Hartree-Fock Studies
We report in this paper experimental and theoretical studies of the nonlinear optical properties of a new class of compounds which differ from traditional second-order molecules in the sense that a commonly used electron donor chromophore is replaced by a thiophene ring. The molecular second-order nonlinear optical coefficients, beta, as determined by the electric field-induced second-harmonic generation technique, for 2-nitro-1-(2-thienyl)ethene and 4-nitro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butadiene are, respectively, 1 and 3 times that of para-nitroaniline. Ab initio time-dependent coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock results are in agreement with the experimental findings. A Mulliken population analysis indicates that the sulfur atom in the thiophene ring acts as an electron donor. Both the experimental and the theoretical results confirm that a thiophene ring acts as an efficient donor, giving rise to highly efficient second-order nonlinear optical properties. We also show that with this type of chromophore one can use a thiophene oligomer, in place of a thiophene monomer, to amplify the nonlinearity.