Energy Sources Part A-recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects, Vol.36, No.1, 93-103, 2014
The Synthesis and Characterization of Microporous, High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Palm Seeds
A high surface area, microporous activated carbon was prepared from palm seeds using chemical and physical activation methods. Samples of powdered palm seeds were treated with different concentrations of phosphoric and nitric acid at 160 degrees C, followed by physical activation using CO2 at 550 degrees C. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis of the carbon treated with acids has a low surface area (27 cm(2)/g) using nitrogen at 77.35 K, whereas only mesopore structures were opened by an acid mixture. Further physical treatment by CO2 provided a high surface area of 1,440 m(2)/g and the pore volume distribution illustrated a micropore structure with a mean pore of 1 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis illustrated the presence of carboxylic, phenolic, and lactoine groups on the surface of these activated carbon samples where the obtained zero point of charge (pH(ZPC)) for this material was 4.89.