Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.440, No.4, 551-557, 2013
NOD2 triggers PGE2 synthesis leading to IL-8 activation in Staphylococcus aureus-infected human conjunctival epithelial cells
We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulate IL-8 expression in human conjunctival epithelial cells through different signal transduction pathways. As in some cell types both the bacteria may induce the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGE2 may affect the expression of IL-8, we aimed at investigating whether in human conjunctival cells infected with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa the activation of IL-8 transcription was mediated by PGE2 and which were the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that S. aureus, but not P. aeruginosa, triggered IL-8 activation by increasing COX-2 expression and PGE2 levels in a time-dependent manner. Overexpression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) resulted to be essential in the enhancement of IL-8 induced by S. aureus. It dramatically activated c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway which in turn led to COX2 upregulation and ultimately to IL-8 transcription. The full understanding of the S. aureus-induced biochemical processes in human conjunctival epithelium will bring new insight to the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in conjunctiva bacterial infections and develop novel treatment aiming at phlogosis modulation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.