Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.430, No.4, 1189-1194, 2013
Regulation of TNF alpha converting enzyme activity in visceral adipose tissue of obese mice
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and one of the major mediators of obesity-induced insulin resistance. TNF alpha is generated through TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE)-mediated cleavage of the transmembrane precursor pro-TNF alpha. Inhibition of TACE resulted in the improvement in glucose and insulin levels in diabetic animals, suggesting a crucial role of TACE activity in glucose metabolism. However, the regulation of TACE activity in insulin-sensitive tissues has not been fully determined. This study aimed to investigate the impact of TACE in insulin-sensitive tissues in the early stage of the development of obesity. C57BL6 mice were fed standard chow (B6-SC) or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (B6-HF/HS). KK-Ay mice were fed SC ad libitum (Ay-AL) or fed reduced amounts of SC (caloric restriction (CR); Ay-CR). As control for Ay-AL, KK mice fed SC ad libitum (KK-AL) were used. TACE activity in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but not in liver or skeletal muscle, was significantly elevated in B6-HF/HS and Ay-AL compared with B6-SC and KK-AL, respectively. Phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK, but not ERK, in VATs from B6-HF/HS and Ay-AL was also significantly elevated. Ay-CR showed significantly lower TACE, JNK and p38MAPK activities in VAT and serum TNF alpha level compared with those of Ay-AL In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of TNF alpha activated TACE, JNK and p38MAPK activities in VAT in KK mice. In conclusion, during the development of obesity, TACE activity is elevated only in VAT, and CR effectively reduced TACE activity and TACE-mediated pro-TNF alpha shedding in VAT. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.