Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.428, No.4, 475-481, 2012
Hypothermia-dependent and -independent effects of forced swim on the phosphorylation states of signaling molecules in mouse hippocampus
Forced swim (FS) stress induces diverse biochemical responses in the brain of rodents. Here, we examined the effect of hypothermia induced by FS in cold water on the phosphorylation of FS-sensitive signaling molecules in the mouse brain. As we have shown previously, FS in cold water induced a significant increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRP alpha, a neuronal membrane protein, in mouse hippocampus, while such effect of FS was markedly reduced in mice subjected to FS in warm water. FS in cold water also induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) as well as of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), or dephosphorylation of alpha isoform of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha CaMKII) in the hippocampus. These effects of FS on the phosphorylation of these molecules were also lost in mice subjected to FS in warm water. Genetic ablation of SIRP alpha did not change the phosphorylation states of these molecules in the brain. Forced cooling of anesthetized mice, which induced a marked increase in the phosphorylation of SIRP alpha, induced dephosphorylation of alpha CaMKII in the brain, while the same treatment did not affect the phosphorylation level of MEK and CREB. Hibernation also induced an increase and a decrease of the phosphorylation of SIRP alpha and alpha CaMKII, respectively, in the brain of chipmunk. These results suggest that hypothermia is a major element that determines the levels of phosphorylation of alpha CaMKII and SIRPa during the FS in cold water, while it is not for the phosphorylation levels of MEK and CREB. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.