|원료||hydrocarbon; air; process steam|
|적용||To produce ammonia from hydrocarbon feedstocks using a high-pressure steam reforming process.|
|설명||Description: The catalytic steam hydrocarbon reforming process produces raw synthesis gas by steam reforming under pressure, followed by CO shift, purification of raw synthesis gas, and ammonia synthesis.
Following sulfur removal (1), the primary reformer (2) converts about 70% of hydrocarbon feed into raw synthesis gas, in the presence of steam using a nickel catalyst.
In the secondary reformer (3), air is introduced to supply the nitrogen. The heat of combustion of the partially reformed gas supplies the energy to reform the remainder of the hydrocrbon feed.
Secondary reformer effluent is cooled in waste heat boilers and delivered to the CO shift converters containing two types of catalyst : one (4) is a high-temperature catalyst, and the other (5) is a low-temperature catalyst.
Shift reactor effluent is cooled, condensed water scparated (6) and then routed to the gas purification section (7-11). CO2 is removed from the synthesis gas in any one of a number of systems (7,8)-e.g., hot carbonate, MEA (monoethanolamine), Selexol, etc.
After CO2 removal, final purification includes methanation (9, 10) and gas drying (11). The resulting pure synthesis gas is compressed, mixed with a recycle stream and introduced to the last stage of the compressor (12).
The gas mixture is passed to the ammonia converter (13). The effluent vapors are cooled by ammonia refrigeration (14) and recycled. Anhydrous liquid ammonia is condensed and separated (15) from the effluent.
New energy-efficient and cost-effective designs are in operation with energy consumptions of less than 25 MMBtu (LHV)/short ton. Unreacted gases are recycled to the ammonia converter.
|Properties in KDB||
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