화학공학소재연구정보센터
Applied Chemistry for Engineering, Vol.27, No.1, 1-9, February, 2016
미세조류와 박테리아의 공생 배양을 이용한 하폐수 고도처리
Advanced Treatment of Wastewater Using Symbiotic Co-culture of Microalgae and Bacteria
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초록
미세조류와 박테리아의 공배양 시스템은 두 미생물종이 공생적 관계가 있다면 한 배양기에서 BOD와 영양염류의 동시 제거가 가능하다. 이때 영양염류는 미세조류의 바이오매스 성분으로 전환된다. 이 총설은 미세조류와 박테리아의 공생적 혼합배양을 이용한 하폐수처리, 특히 질소와 인의 제거에서의 중요성과 최근의 연구동향을 살펴보았다. 미세조류는 광합성을 통해 산소를 발생시키고 박테리아는 이 산소를 전자수용체로 이용하여 유기물의 산화분해에 활용할 수 있다. 호기성 박테리아가 유기물을 산화할 때 발생되는 CO2는 미세조류의 탄소원으로 섭취되어 탄소동화작용에 사용된다. 미세조류와 박테리아의 공배양은 상호 이익이 될 수도 있고 저해가 될 수도 있으므로 지속적인 영양염류제거를 위해서는 상호 이익이 되는 공생적 관계가 필수적으로 요구된다. 이를 위해서는 하폐수처리에 사용되는 상용적인 두 미생물 종의 선택이 중요하다.
The co-culture system of microalgae and bacteria enables simultaneous removal of BOD and nutrients in a single reactor if the pair of microorganisms is symbiotic. In this case, nutrients are converted to biomass constituents of microalgae. This review highlights the importance and recent researches using symbiotic co-culture system of microalgae and bacteria in wastewater treatment, focusing on the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. During wastewater treatment, the microalgae produces molecular oxygen through photosynthesis, which can be used as an electron acceptor by aerobic bacteria to degrade organic pollutants. The released CO2 during the bacterial mineralization can then be consumed by microalgae as a carbon source in photosynthesis. Microalgae and bacteria in the co-culture system could cooperate or compete each other for resources. In the context of wastewater treatment, positive relationships are prerequisite to accomplish the sustainable removal of nutrients. Therefore, the selection of compatible species is very important if the co-culture has to be utilized in wastewater treatment.
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